Psychology of driving and driver's activity

Research of any trade by psychology agents should begin with the analysis of psychological structure of labour activity. Such characteristic of a trade is called as professiogramma.

It is known, that the behaviour of the person is the consecutive decision of various problems - big and small, difficult and simple. Solving these problems, the person operates so that to reach objects in view. But before to solve this or that problem, the person should "construct" external world subjects in a head. For example, by search of the certain detail which are on one of shelves of a rack, the person should in the beginning accurately to itself present a general view of this detail, its form. Besides, it is necessary for it to "frame" mentally regiments of a rack and to plan that from them on which most likely there can be this detail.

After some subjects of an external world "are constructed" in a head and after with them actions have been made (besides in a head), the person approaches to a rack and starts to operate in space and time.

Thus, the subjects "constructed" in a head of the person, steer its behaviour. But what itself represent these subjects? Certainly, by the form they have no anything the general with their real prototypes, and are under construction in nervous cells of a brain, more truly, register on particles of nervous cells by means of a certain code. Such records can be named by information models of subjects of an external world in a brain of the person. Internal work with these models prepares the decision of problems, insures against incorrect acts just as work of designers with aviation model promotes improvement of a design of the plane.

Information modelling in driving

The psychology just also is a science about construction and work of information models in a brain of the person. Now it is not produced yet the accurate term for a designation of subjects of the external world reflected in a brain of the person, therefore them conditionally name models because of that role which they play regulation of behaviour of the person.

Hence, to understand psychology of the driver steering the car, it means to understand work of its information models in the course of driving. So, for example, the driver can not stop the car even in the event that the carriageway is passed by the pedestrian. In similar situations in a head of the driver there are moving models of the pedestrian and the car. Dynamics of these models in a brain overtakes events: on model the driver sees, that the car and the pedestrian will not face. The driver does not have necessity not only to resort to an emergency brake application, but also in general to reduce speed.

Thus, all activity of the driver is based on information modelling. Models of objects of an environment - pedestrians, other cars, the subjects located near to road, model of as moving object among other subjects of an external world, - all it is the psychological base, both the general work of the driver, and its behaviour in especially difficult cases threatening by accident. Here modelling process is carried out throughout seconds and shares of second.

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Driving psychology

The driving consists in providing corresponding to a transport problem and a concrete situation car position on road, a direction and speed of its movement and also to carry out the control over work of all its units.

For the decision of these problems the driver should possess variety of the psychophysiological and mental functions characterised by a certain condition of development.

It is possible to tell, that activity of the driver weeps in difficult system the driver-car-environment of movement. Movement of the car in the environment of movement, its interaction with her is characterised by a number of sizes. Major of them are: car position, a direction, speed and time of its movement concerning various elements of the environment of movement, and also change of these characteristics.

The psychological environment of movement of the car

The movement environment includes road, mobile and motionless objects on road and that area of space are close expensive, which can affect car movement. Road as the major element of environment in which the car moves, has the parametres: width of a carriageway, a configuration in the plan and a cross-section, a condition of a covering, border (sidewalk, a road ditch, road shoulders etc.).

Except road, in the environment of movement there are motionless and mobile objects. Road signs, traffic lights concern motionless objects, any static obstacles etc. The basic sizes of motionless objects are: their form, size, colour, mass, character of a surface, position and, certainly, their value.

Mobile objects on road are; pedestrians, vehicles, animal. These objects also have sizes, characteristic for motionless objects: the form, size etc., but besides, they have also the parametres characterising movement. It is a driving direction, speed and their change.

Steering the car, the driver should estimate constantly a condition of the environment of movement of the conducted car.

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The mental functions necessary for driving

For realisation of correct movement the driver constantly influences car controls (a steering wheel, pedals of a brake, clutch and steering of a throttle, a shift lever, switches of light devices etc.). These controls also have the parametres which are necessary for estimating for successful work with them. It is possible to carry their position, size, the form, remoteness To them from the driver and from each other, a direction and speed from which they need to be moved. Besides, the driver is obliged to watch from time to time indications of devices.

If to compare all properties set forth above and parametres of all objects of system the driver-car-environment of movement, the information about which is a basis for activity realisation on a driving it is possible to tell, that the driver constantly should define, on the one hand, the form, size, colour and some other properties of objects on road and controls in a cabin, and on the other hand, their position, remoteness, time, a direction and speed of movement. The information on these properties is a necessary condition for driving realisation. Its reception, processing, storage and activity on the basis of this information is provided with the certain mental functions which are available for the driver (partially congenital, and basically got in the course of an ontogeny, it is spontaneous or is more less organised at training).

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